An analysis of certain historical events during the years 2000-2010 can help us understand the transition we are experiencing :

  • 1998 Universalization of the Web ; computers become commonplace, e-mail is exploding (2000) and a second generation of online information exchange communities (first generation: The Well – Sausalito, 1985). Henceforth, more computer monitors are manufactured than televisions (2000). The emergence of cyberspace, wherein citizens can exchange content without using government networks.
  • 1999 First major protest against globalization (Seattle). This resulted in the emergence of the World Social Forum (Porto Alegre, 2001) in reaction to the Davos meetings that have brought together the political and economic elite of the world since 1971. The refusal of a single model of society that would be American. The confidence of the governed towards their rulers is beginning to diminish. At the same time, civil society gains recognition as a social actor vis-a-vis the political and economic classes (Tunis, 2005) and we see the “World Social Forums” (2001) appear. We experience the Arab Spring (2010), as well as the appearance of the protest known as Occupy Wall Street (2011), etc.
  • 2000 The dot.com bubble breaks out, followed by many financial scandals (Enron in 2001, WorldCom in 2002, etc.) ; these events shake the confidence of investors, especially small ones. Financialization algorithms are invented (2004); The whole economic system was soon shaken, obliging political authorities to help the banks and big consortia with the money of the citizens (subprime crisis in 2008). The G20 replaces the G8, which is unable to respond to the crises that are unfolding (2008).
  • 2001 Creation of Wikipedia ; Online encyclopedias are rapidly replacing paper encyclopedias. Henceforth, people will seek information via networks, especially since the arrival of Google (1998). We observe the appearance of collaborative works and then blogs (2003). The phenomenon of peer-to-peer (2005) is gaining momentum, followed by the early emergence of wirearchy as an organizing principle for the new conditions of the « New World » (Husband, 2000).
  • 2001 Explosions of mobile devices; iPod, iPhone (2007) and iPad (2009), which facilitate access to information flows and networks for millions of users previously rejected by keyboards. From now on, the Internet ceases to be a public media of information and turns to become a media of intervention and eventually into a socio-political tool.
  • 2001 GPS and Wi-Fi technologies; combined with the explosion of mobile devices, these technologies impose a cross-platform approach on producers (Apple’s ISO4, 2009) and create a new generation of applications dedicated to niches (iTunes, 2001). ). The arrival of the first tele-consumers (Amazon and eBay, 1996). This added-value capability drives the digital economy to new heights and obscures the problems of financialization linked to the neoliberal model.
  • 2003 My Space, Facebook (2004), YouTube (2005) and Twitter (2006); create new content exchange communities ; social networks take shape. The Net Generation Digital natives coming online increasingly adds numbers to the users already in place.
  • 2001 The terrorist attacks of September 11 in New York; reveal the vulnerability of the United States. Leaders then develop a new technological generation that sacrifices citizens’ right to privacy on the altar of state security (Patriot Act, 2001). They then go on the offensive by spying on everyone, including allied countries (NSA, 2013). Reactions include the rise of WikiLeaks and the denunciations of Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden (2013).
  • 2003 In the Iraq war; the US government developed the Battlefield Internet model (Pentagon, Donald Rumsfeld, 2003), capable of managing a war in real-time despite the span of distance over seven time zones. This model is made available to major American private consortiums, which use it to establish economic dominance.
  • 2002 Telephones equipped with cameras; the iPhones (2007), iPad (2009) and other such tools are beginning to create new forms of writing (or creating content) for the new media platforms. This interactive writing, which relies on the oral culture of the popular classes, is created to encourage greater consumption via the new generation of smart mobile devices.
  • 2004 Google Maps (2004), Flickr (2004), Pinterest (2010), YouTube (2000); and others create a massive explosion in the use of images and cartography and create an equally massive explosion of Big Data.
  • 2006 Voice and gesture commands; (Wii, 2006), television and 3D films, dome screens (2011) and 360 degrees, as well as other media interfaces (2011) give the viewer the illusion of living more and more within information (immersed in information).
  • 2010 Continuous information; (CNN, 1995) and Netflix (2010), etc. Consumers replace the rental of DVDs by video-on-demand (conditions with which the customer can watch in burst what s/he wants). The law of supply is suddenly replaced by that of demand; fewer and fewer weekly appointments with the home screen and more and more personalized schedules. Unable to find an economic model adapted to this new reality, the traditional industries of content (books, newspapers, music, films) are seriously shaken up.